Day 2 :
Chair in Autoimmune Disease Department of Microbiology and Immunology Director of the Molecular Immunomodulation Program at the Institute for Cellular Therapeutics University of Louisville USA
Time : 10:00-10:30
Dr Shirwan is Dr Michael and Joan Hamilton Endowed Chair in Autoimmune Disease Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and the Director of the Molecular Immunomodulation Program at the Institute for Cellular Therapeutics. He conducted his graduate studies at the University of California in Santa Barbara CA and postdoctoral studies at California Institute of Technology in Pasadena CA. He joined the University of Louisville in 1998 after holding academic appointments at various institutions in the United States. Dr Shirwans research focuses on the modulation of immune system for the treatment of immunebased diseases with particular focus on type 1 diabetes transplantation and development of vaccines against infections and cancer. Dr Shirwan is widely published lectured at various national/international conferences served on various federal and nonprofit funding agencies and is on the Editorial Board of nine scientific journals He is a member of several national and international societies and recipient of various awards.
Protein-based subunit vaccines against cancer and infections are attractive because of their safety as well as rapid, cost-effective, and large-scale production. However, they are weekly immunogenic and their immunogenicity is further compromised by various immune evasion mechanisms employed by cancer and chronic infections. Accumulating evidence suggest that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines may benefit from adjuvants modulating innate, adaptive, and regulatory arms of the immune system. In this context, subunit vaccines efficacy may require formulations that include adjuvants having pleiotropic effects on various cells of the immune system. We have recently generated a novel form the 4-1BBL costimulatory molecule, SA-4-1BBL, having pleiotropic effects on various cells of the immune system. As adjuvant component of subunit-based vaccines, SA-4-1BBL was effective in eradicating tumors in preclinical models. Therapeutic efficacy was associated with a robust increase in T effectors and down-regulation of various immune evasion mechanisms. SA-4-1BBL has recently been used in combination with a TLR4 agonist as adjuvant component of tumor associated antigen-based subunit vaccine in cervical and lung cancer preclinical models with robust therapeutic efficacy. These studies provide a strong rationale for using SA-4-1BBL as a platform to design adjuvant systems for the development of therapeutic vaccines.
Professor of Retroviral Immunology University of Florida USA USA
Time : 10:30-11:00
Dr. Janet K. Yamamoto is a Professor of Retroviral Immunology in the Department of Infectious Diseases and Pathology, University of Florida. She is the first to demonstrate, together with Nobel laureate Dr. Francoise Barré-Sinoussi, that interferon-gamma will enhance HIV-1 infection, and she has served as the consultant of the second FDA-approved HIV-1 immunoblot for HIV-1 confirmatory test. Yamamoto co-discovered the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and also invented the first commercial FIV vaccine sold by Pfizer-Zoetis and Boehringer. She was inducted to the National Academy of Inventors in 2014 and has published over 85 journal/book articles and over 30 patent publications. (100 words)
A major pursuit to develop an effective HIV-1 vaccine has ensued throughout the last 30 years and led to only one promising clinical vaccine trial, RV144. This trial used a prime-boost vaccination approach focused mainly on inducing humoral immunity. Remarkably however, CD4+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to the HIV-1 envelope were also detected. The importance of T-cell immunity in the control of virus infection and viral set point has been described for HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections. Moreover, a commercial vaccine against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), the feline counterpart of HIV-1, was mediated by anti-FIV T-cell immunity. As of to date, no T-cell based peptide vaccine has been commercially released for prophylaxis against human or animal pathogens. In current studies, two unique approaches were utilized in the selection and delivery of T-cell based vaccine epitopes. The selected T-cell epitopes were highly conserved among HIV-1, SIV, and FIV, and induced potent CTL and polyfunctional T-cell activities against multiple lentiviruses. These lentivirally-conserved epitope peptides were formulated in pamitoyled multiple antigen peptides and delivered into the cytosol of antigen presenting cells for peptide processing and presentation to the T cells. This approach induced robust CTL and polyfunctional T-cell activities that prevented infection without over-stimulating viral enhancing epitopes. In conclusion, current animal vaccine study demonstrated the existence of T-cell epitopes on the viral proteins that can either enhance infection or confer protection against an AIDS lentivirus, and therefore the need for careful evaluation of epitopes on HIV vaccine immunogen. (247 words)