Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 11th Global Summit and Expo on Vaccines, Vaccination and Therapeutics Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Day 1 :

  • Ebola vaccines | vaccines against infectious diseases | cancer vaccines | influenza & flu vaccines

Session Introduction

Nabil Al-Humadi

pharmacologist at the Center of Biologics in the US Food and Drug Administration, Dr. Al-Humadi holds two master degrees and a Ph.D. and has 18 years’ work experience in the government and 7 years in the industry. Dr. Al-Humadi presented more than 50 posters in scientific meetings and published more than 10 papers in peer reviewed journals.

Title: Acute phase reactants; what are they? And, why we should be concerned about them?
Speaker
Biography:

Dr. Nabil Al-Humadi currently works as a pharmacologist at the Center of Biologics in the US Food and Drug Administration. Dr. Al-Humadi holds two master degrees and a Ph.D. and has 18 years’ work experience in the government and 7 years in the industry. Dr. Al-Humadi presented more than 50 posters in scientific meetings and published more than 10 papers in peer reviewed journals. His current publication is chapter “pre-clinical toxicology of vaccines” in “comprehensive guide to toxicology in preclinical drug development” book.

Abstract:

Following tissue damage, infection, or physical trauma, a series of reactions occur in the host to prevent further injury, isolate and eliminate the infecting agent, and to activate repair processes that eventually allow the organism to return to normal function. This homeostatic process is inflammation, and the initial and immediate set of responses induced is the Acute Phase Response [APR]. To contribute to the host defense, altered biosynthetic profile of the liver in which certain proteins, the acute phase reactants (APRs), are expressed at higher levels. Acute phase reactants which are used in the assessment of inflammation includes; C-reactive proteins, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, serum amyloid, albumin (negative acute phase response), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, and TNFα), α1-acid glycoprotein (α1AGP), α2-macroglobulin (α-2M), and thiostatin. The suitability of each APR as a marker of inflammation depends upon certain criteria. A long with the measurement of the inflammatory cells, food consumption, body weight, and changes in body temperature should also be considered. These preclinical toxicology endpoints are the counterparts for inflammation and pain at the site of injection, malaise, fatigue, and slight febrile responses which may be produced by vaccines in a clinical study. Proper design and techniques (e.g., validating sample collection time points for specific proteins, proper selection of animal species… etc.) used in any pre-clinical toxicology study for vaccines should be carefully considered.

Speaker
Biography:

Frederic J Deschamps is a Medical Doctor since 1990 and he has completed his PhD in Toxicology in 1993 at the University of Lille, France. He is the Director of the Department of Occupational Health of the Medicine Faculty of Reims, France. He has published more than 40 papers in medical journals about occupational health and diseases.

Abstract:

Influenza viruses are highly contagious: New strains of influenza are frequently identified. Beside, influenza vaccination is the most effective way of influenza prevention. Numerous jobs (including healthcare workers, police officers and house workers) have a risk of occupational exposure to influenza and may transmit the infection to other people and co-workers. The aim is to determine influenza vaccination rates, vaccine effectiveness and factors influencing vaccination decisions. A cross sectional survey was conducted during the influenza vaccination campaigns. The study concerns a representative sample gathering a population of 50,000 workers who belong to a large distribution of occupational branches. Workers were asked to complete, during their occupational medical examination, a brief questionnaire containing a list of reasons for being vaccinated or not and also to get information about flu vaccination effectiveness. Questions included awareness of zoonotic influenza risk in relationship with the working tasks performed. The rate of annual influenza vaccination was quite low for all the workers groups. Education about the risk of flu contamination, in relationship with the characteristic of the jobs was not frequently offered. The main reason given for being vaccinated was selfprotection; one of the most common reasons for not being vaccinated was concern about injection’s sick effects including problems bound to adjuvants. The occupational medical staff failed to influence the decision to be vaccinated against the flu. The low rate of flu vaccination indicates that most of the workers were susceptible to get an infection. Also, international data shows highly variable vaccination rates. The most important tool in making decision about influenza vaccination is the internal communication. This low coverage achieved is an occupational and public health problem. These findings confirm the importance of a comprehensive approach to the influenza vaccination ensuring that workers are correctly informed about the flu vaccine and that it is convenient to receive it.

Speaker
Biography:

Timothy R Fouts is one of the Founders and Principle Scientists at Profectus Biosciences. He directs a team of scientists in the discovery and preclinical development of vaccines, small molecule and antibody based antiviral therapies and microbicides that are within the Profectus research portfolio in particular HIV and certain biothreat viruses. He has more than 35 scientific publications that have appeared in peer-reviewed journals and book chapters. He has received his PhD in Immunology from the University of Maryland, Baltimore and did a Postdoctoral Fellowship at the Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center at Rockefeller University in NYC.

Abstract:

Obtaining a practical, efficacious vaccine against HIV has been a public health priority for over 30 years. We have developed the Full-length Single Chain (FLSC) in order to induce broader immunity, including against new conserved epitopes, compared to conventional gp120 or trimeric gp140s. The FLSC vaccine is fusion protein consisting of a modified full length gp120 protein, derived from HIVBaL and the first two domains (D1D2) of human CD4, genetically fused via a 20 amino acid linker. Immunization with FLSC was able to protect rhesus macaques against rectal challenge of heterologous neutralization resistant SHIV(162P3) and SIVmac251. Efficacy tracked with Fc-mediated effector function of the antibody provided that the concurrent anti-vaccine T cell response is minimal. Protection is lost over time as requisite antibody titers declined consistent with the evanescent quality of antienvelope humoral responses. To advance the FLSC into clinical trials, a master cell bank expressing human FLSC was prepared from G293H, a derivative of HEK-293 cell that grows in suspension, using the GPEx® retrovector transduction system. Bioreactor production rates were consistent from the 2L to the 200L scale, yielding approximately 1 gms/liter after downstream purification. Drug substance was predominately monomeric and expressed the expected CD4 induced structure. Potency studies with the Alum formulated drug product demonstrated a significant relationship between the dose of the FLSC/Alum (IHV01) and the induction of the desired CD4i directed immune response. Immunogenicity studies performed in rhesus macaques showed that the FLSC/Alum formulation induced antibodies directed to CD4i epitopes and mediated ADCC activity while T-cell responses were modest. Toxicity studies performed in rabbits and cynomolgus macaques demonstrated that the vaccine was safe and did not induce any deleterious autoimmune effects directed to CD4. A dose escalation phase 1 clinical trial with IHV01 has started at the Institute for Human Virology in Baltimore, MD.

Speaker
Biography:

Mahmoud Magd, Mansoura University, Egypt

Abstract:

Background: Ebola is a hemorrhagic disease of humans caused by Ebola viruses ongoing in several West African countries. Aims: To evaluate the current level of knowledge of Ebola virus and to raise community awareness of the risk factors for Ebola infection among medical and para-medical students given that healthcare workers have been especially vulnerable. Method: This was a field study carried in the campus of University of Mansoura, Egypt. A stand has been divided into 3 stations: A pre-survey, an awareness station and a post-survey. The questionnaire addressed basic facts about Ebola virus and how to prevent it, its route of transmission, risk of morbidity and mortality, treatments available and countries afflicted. Results: Out of the 1515 peoples participating in the survey there were 703 females and 812 males. A total of 1336 were medical students. 754 said they had heard about Ebola. The internet was the most common source of knowledge about Ebola, as 1273 students stated it as first choice with TV coming in second with 242 students. Most were met with the answer ‘I don’t know’ in the pre-survey. In the post-survey after a 10 minutes general awareness session about the Ebola virus, 1470 surveyors agreed that Ebola has currently no effective treatment and leads to death. Moreover, after the quick awareness 1491 surveyors answered positively to the question ‘Is Ebola preventable?’ Conclusion: Involving community especially medical students and healthcare workers in treatment and prevention of Ebola through providing adequate means of awareness and assessment is crucial in limiting its consequences.

Biography:

Mashallah Mohammadi Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Iran

Abstract:

As cellular immunity is essential for virus clearance, it is commonly accepted that no adequate cellular immunity is achieved by all available inactivated HA-based influenza vaccines. Thus, an improved influenza vaccine to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses is urgently required to control LPAI H9N2 outbreaks in poultry farms. M2e-based vaccines have been suggested and developed as a new generation of universal vaccine candidate against influenza A infection. Our previous study have shown that a prime-boost administration of recombinant 4×M2e.HSP70c (r4M2e/H70c) fusion protein compared to conventional HA-based influenza vaccines provided full protection against lethal dose of influenza A viruses in mice. In the present study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of (r4M2e/H70c) was examined in chickens. The data reported herein show that protection against H9N2 viral challenge was significantly increased in chickens by injection of r4M2e/H70c compared with injection of conventional HA-based influenza vaccine adjuvanted with MF59 or recombinant 4×M2e (r4M2e) without HSP70c. Oropharyngeal and cloacal shedding of the virus was detected in all of the r4M2e/H70c vaccinated birds at 2 days after challenge, but the titer was low and decreased rapidly to reach undetectable levels at 7 days after challenge. This protective immunity might be attributed to enhanced cell-mediated immunity, which is interpreted as increased lymphocytes proliferation, increased levels of Th1-type (IFN-) and Th2- type (IL-4) cytokines production and increased CD4+ to CD8+ ratios, resulting from the injection of four tandem repeats of the ectodomain of the conserved influenza matrix protein M2 (4×M2e) genetically fused to C-terminus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP70 (mHSP70c).

Speaker
Biography:

Fowowe Oluwadamilola University of Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract:

Background: Nigeria has embraced the primary healthcare movement and has committed its resources to the provision of cost effective community based primary healthcare strategy. Immunizations are important part of this effort, especially the provision of the vaccines incorporated into the national expanded program on immunization (EPI) due to decline in immunization coverage. Community pharmacies can be involved in immunization to improve coverage as has been shown in the United States of America (USA) that this led to great improvement in immunization coverage. Objectives: To determine the current level of involvement and preparedness of community pharmacies and the willingness of community pharmacists to participate in immunization services. Method: One hundred and eighty four (184) questionnaires were distributed to community pharmacies using the systematic sampling method. Results: The study revealed that community pharmacies are largely involved in immunization services and also had most of the required infrastructure to stock vaccines. Also, community pharmacists were willing to undergo training to administer vaccines (96.2%). Conclusion: This study has shown the current level of involvement and preparedness of community pharmacies and the willingness of community pharmacists to participate in immunization services. Recommendations: Training sessions should be organized for community pharmacists to administer vaccines as this will improve immunization coverage.

John N Galgiani

John N Galgiani University of Arizona College of Medicine, USA

Title: Vaccines to prevent coccidioidomycosis
Speaker
Biography:

John N Galgiani University of Arizona College of Medicine, USA

Abstract:

Coccidioidomycosis (San Joaquin Valley Fever) is a systemic fungal infection of the southwestern US and other parts of the western hemisphere. A third of infections results in many weeks to many months of disability and a small percentage are progressive and even life-threatening. Infection, even in those who develop complications, induces protective cellular immunity and suggests that a preventative vaccine strategy is biologically possible. Whole cell killed vaccines were not sufficiently immunogenic and recombinant protein-based vaccines were economically not feasible for this orphan disease. A gene (CPS1) of the corn pathogen, Cochliobolus, is involved in virulence. Deleting its homolog in Coccidioides posadasii produced Δ-cps1 which did not cause disease in three susceptible inbred mouse strains, including one that lacked T, B and NK cells. Using an inoculum one million times above the LD95 or infecting neutropenic mice also did not result in disease. Nearly all infecting spores failed to complete a full tissue-cycle of replication. Vaccination with 105 cfu of Δ-cps1, either subcutaneously or intranasally, protected mice from a lethal intranasal C. posadasii or C. immitis infection. Compared to unvaccinated mice, lung fungal burden was reduced approximately 5 logs and often no fungal growth was evident. Protection persists at least four months (longest delay thus far evaluated). Δ-cps1 grows nearly as quickly and produces nearly as many spores as wild type. As a result, manufacturing and formulation methodology should be feasible. We conclude that Δ-cps1 is an attractive candidate as a preventative vaccine for both dogs and humans.

Joseph N Blattman

Joseph N Blattman has completed his PhD in Immunology and Molecular Pathogenesis from Emory University and Postdoctoral studies at the University of Washington and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

Title: A quantitative understanding of the balance between pathologic and protective T-cell responses during viral infection
Speaker
Biography:

Joseph N Blattman has completed his PhD in Immunology and Molecular Pathogenesis from Emory University and Postdoctoral studies at the University of Washington and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. He is an Assistant Professor of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology in the School of Life Sciences at Arizona State University. He actively teaches immunology courses and has more than 38 peer-reviewed publications in highly cited journals.

Abstract:

T-cell responses have the potential for efficient protection against a wide range of virus infections. However, T-cell responses also have the potential for mediating severe pathological responses. Understanding this balance is key to the development of vaccines that maximize protection while minimizing the potential for immune-mediated pathology. As pathology arises as a consequence of the complex interplay between the dynamics of rapidly changing populations of pathogen, immune cells and the cytokines that they secrete, understanding pathology compels the joint use of animal models and mathematical modeling. We have previously described the development of quantitative mathematical models to explain the pathology observed during LCMV infection in mice, due to narrow vaccination against a single virus epitope that is most severe when intermediate numbers of naive antigen-specific CD8 T-cells are present prior to infection. We have used these models to make predictions regarding how key attributes of the T-cell response, such as cell phenotype and polyclonality affect this balance. We found, as predicted, increased pathology during LCMV infection due to an intermediate precursor frequency of memory CD8 T-cells was independent of the breadth of the memory T-cell response, but was dependent on T-cell production of TNF. In particular, abrogation of TNF signaling resulted in decreased pathology but no change in viral clearance, suggesting that TNF-blockade may be useful for minimizing pathology while maintaining protection following virus infection.