Day 1 :
University of California, USA
Time : 09:30
James D. Cherry MD, MSC has been a pediatric infectious diseases specialist for 53 years. He is a Distinguished Research Professor at the David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles. Professor Cherry has published 304 research papers, 108 editorials/commentaries and 282 book chapters. He has given 238 presentations at national and international conferences. The majority of these papers and talks have related to vaccines and vaccine preventable diseases. Professor Cherry is the senior editor of Feigin and Cherry’s ”Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases” which is now in its 7th edition.he was Chief of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases for 27 years. He has received numerous awards, including the Distinguished Physician Award from the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society in 2003 and the UCLA Medical Alumni Associations’ Medical Science award in 2005.
In 2012 in the U.S., there were 48,277 cases of reported pertussis which was the largest number since 1995. Since 1983 (14 years before DTaP), numbers and rates of reported pertussis started to climb and marked peaks occurred in 2005, 2010, 2012, and 2014. Pertussis Fact #1: “The rate of reported pertussis today is ~20-fold less than in the pre-vaccine era.” Pertussis Fact #2: “Illness in DTaP vaccine failures is less severe than illness in similar aged unvaccinated children.” Possible reasons for the resurgence of reported pertussis are: genetic changes in B. pertussis, DTaP vaccines are not as good as DTwP vaccines, greater awareness, and better lab tests. Misconception #1: the resurgence is due to inferiority of DTaP vaccines. Misconception #2: the resurgence is due to genetic changes. Misconception #3: “Immunity following pertussis is lifelong whereas immunity following immunization is short lived. Misconception #4: Pertussis in adolescents and adults is a new phenomenon due to changes in the herd immunity in the vaccine era.” Pertussis Fact #3: “B. pertussis contains many proteins that participate in the infection process. In contrast, B. pertussis clinical illness is due to just the two factors. PT causes severe diseases in infants. The other factor which causes cough is unknown. Causes of DTaP vaccine failures include: a Th1/Th2 cellular immune response, incomplete antigen package, incorrect balance of antigens, linked-epitope suppression and genetic changes.
In summary, (1) DTwP vaccines are better than DTaP vaccines; (2) all vaccine efficacy has been inflated due to case definition and observer bias; (3) the main reasons for DTaP vaccines failure is incomplete antigen package, linked epitope suppression, a Th1/2 response, genetic changes and incorrect antigen balance; (4) the present resurgence has been inflated due to increased awareness and the use of PCR for Dx.
University of Texas - Houston Medical School USA
Time : 10:15
Sudhir Paul, PhD, is Professor of Pathology and Director, Chemical Immunology Research Center at the Univ of Texas Houston Health Sciences Center. After his Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the All-India Institute of Medical Sciences in 1981, Dr. Paul was a Humboldt Fellow until 1983 at Christian Albrechts Univ, Gemany. He served as Asst Professor at Univ of Oklahoma until 1987 and then moved to Univ of Nebraska Medical Center, where he was Assoc Professor and then Professor of Pharmacology, Pathology and Anesthesiology until 1998. Dr. Paul has published more than 190 original articles, reviews and book chapters, and he has edited several books and conference proceedings on catalytic antibodies, HIV vaccination, amyloid disease and autoimmunity. He has delivered over 250 invited seminars and symposium presentations.
The Paul lab discovered proteolytic antibodies and identified them as transitional molecules bridging the innate and adaptive features of humoral immunity. A single catalytic antibody molecule is reused to cleave thousands of antigen molecules, and the Paul lab is developing catalytic antibodies as a platform for treating intractable diseases. While developing immunogens for inducing catalytic antibody synthesis, they serendipitously identified an electrophilic immunogen that bound B cells covalently and corrected the immunological defect precluding synthesis of mature antibodies directed to the vulnerable, superantigenic CD4 binding site of HIV. This immunogen induced antibodies that neutralized HIV strains found world-wide. They are now exploring the potential of electrophilic immunization for vaccination against HIV.
Our studies suggest covalently reactive electrophilic immunogens (E-immunogens) as candidate vaccines for microbes that use superantigen epitopes to bind the immunoglobulin framework regions (FRs) expressed as B cell receptors (BCRs), thereby suppressing the adaptive antibody response needed for protection against infection. The superantigenic gp120 residues 421-433 (CLIN) bind the CD4 receptor and are essential for establishment of HIV-1 infection. Consistent with CLIN designation as a superantigen, non-infected humans innately produce IgM+ BCRs and secreted IgMs with FRs that recognized CLIN and catalyzed the degradation of gp120 monomers. However, only the CLIN-directed variable (V)-domains of IgGs/IgAs, not IgMs, bound intact HIV and neutralized genetically diverse HIV strains, suggesting that IgM→IgG/IgA class-switching (CS) is a prerequisite for effective HIV vaccination. Study of infected humans and gp120 immunized mice indicated that noncovalent CLIN-BCR binding selectively suppresses IgM→IgG CS of CLIN-directed antibodies. The use of CLIN-containing E-immunogens that bound nucleophilic BCRs covalently corrected the CS defect in animals. Upregulated IgG synthesis appears to result from high energy covalent FR binding to E-CLIN, together with CDR binding to a neighboring epitope. The CLIN-directed IgGs neutralized HIV subtype A/B/C/D/AE infection of cultured lymphocytes/macrophages and suppressed HIV infection in immunodeficient mice. A further advantage was improved IgG neutralization potency due to E-immunogen driven acquisition of catalytic and irreversible HIV binding activities. The foregoing E-vaccine principles to correct antibody specificity and improve effector function will likely be useful for other microbes that depend on superantigens to establish infection, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus.
Foundation T. & L. de Beaumont Bonelli for cancer research, Italy
Time : 11:20
Giulio Tarro graduated from Medicine School, Naples University (1962). Research Associate, Division of Virology and Cancer Research, Children’s Hospital (1965-1968), Assistant Professor of Research Pediatrics, College Medicine (1968-1969), Cincinnati University, Ohio. Oncological Virology Professor, Naples University (1972-1985). Chief Division Virology (1973-2003), Head Department Diagnostic Laboratories, (2003-2006). D. Cotugno Hospital for Infectious Diseases, Naples; Emeritus, 2006 -. Since 2007 Chairman Committee of Biotechnologies and VirusSphere, World Academy Biomedical Technologies, UNESCO, Adjunct Professor Department Biology, Temple University, College of Science and Technology, Philadelphia, recipient of the Sbarro Health Research Organization lifetime achievement award (2010). President Foundation de Beaumont Bonelli for Cancer Research.
The lethal virus that causes the smallpox was eraticated in 1979 in man, thanks to a global scale vaccination.Recently the Worl Health Organization (WHO) declared that India and Southeast Asia are free for poliovirus, that can cause paralisis, after the use of vaccines since 60 years ago.Last year over 800 million doses of combination vaccines were used to vaccinate Chinese children whereas more than 20 million children worldwide do not receive one or more important vaccinations that would protect them from preventable diseases. The vaccine for hepatitis B virus (HBV) is able to prevent 50% of all liver cancers. Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV) have been correlated with the cervical cancer for genotypes oncogenic in humans: in 2006 the first vaccine against HPV was released. Finally, the ability of the immune system to recognize a tumor-associated antigen, thus enabling development of a vaccine approach for preventive as well as therapeutic application, represents a main target of this field of research. application and represents a main target of this field of research.