Call for Abstract
10th Euro Global Summit and Expo on Vaccines & Vaccination, will be organized around the theme “Transforming Health through Vaccine Innovations”
Euro Vaccines 2016 is comprised of 28 tracks and 192 sessions designed to offer comprehensive sessions that address current issues in Euro Vaccines 2016.
Submit your abstract to any of the mentioned tracks. All related abstracts are accepted.
Register now for the conference by choosing an appropriate package suitable to you.
A vaccine is an inactivated form of bacteria or virus that is injected into the body to simulate an actual infection. Because the injected microorganisms are 'dead,' they don't cause a person to become sick. Instead, vaccines stimulate an immune response by the body that will fight off that type of illness. It covers infectious disease targets and non-infectious disease targets. To generate vaccine-mediated protection is a complex challenge. Currently available vaccines have largely been developed empirically, with little or no understanding on how they activate the immune system. Their early protective efficacy is primarily conferred by the induction of antigen-specific antibodies. However, there is more to antibody-mediated protection than the peak of vaccine-induced antibody titers.
- Track 1-1Pneumonia Vaccines
- Track 1-2Measles Vaccines
- Track 1-3Rotavirus Vaccine
- Track 1-4Smallpox Vaccine
- Track 1-5Meningococcal /Menactra Vaccines
- Track 1-6Rubella Vaccine
- Track 1-7Chickenpox Vaccine
- Track 1-8OPV Vaccine
- Track 1-9Bordetella Vaccine
- Track 1-10Cholera Vaccine
- Track 1-11Others
- Track 1-12Influenza vaccines
Immunotherapeutics is treatment that uses your body's own immune system to help fight cancer. Get information about the different types of immunotherapy and the types of cancer they are used to treat. The main types of immunotherapy now being used to treat cancer include:
- Cancer vaccines
- Monoclonal antibodies
- Immune checkpoint inhibitors
- Other, non-specific immunotherapies
Some types of immunotherapy are also sometimes called biologic therapy or biotherapy.
In the last few decades immunotherapy has become an important part of treating some types of cancer. Newer types of immune treatments are now being studied, and they’ll impact how we treat cancer in the future.
- Track 2-1Feline Leukemia Vaccines
- Track 2-2Cervical Cancer Vaccine
- Track 2-3Cancer prevention Vaccines
- Track 2-4Cancer treatment Vaccines
- Track 2-5CAR T-Cell Therapy
- Track 2-6Gene-therapy
- Track 2-7Oncolytic viral therapies
- Track 2-8Non-specific cancer immunotherapies and adjuvants
- Track 2-9Cancer Immunotherapy Biomarkers
- Track 2-10Cancer Vaccines research
- Track 2-11Others
Drug delivery systems are engineered technologies for the targeted delivery and/or controlled release of therapeutic agents. Drugs have long been used to improve health and extend lives. The practice of drug delivery has changed dramatically in the last few decades and even greater changes are anticipated in the near future. Biomedical engineers have not only contributed substantially to our understanding of the physiological barriers to efficient drug delivery—such as transport in the circulatory system and drug movement through cells and tissues—they have contributed to the development of a number of new modes of drug delivery that have entered clinical practice. Role of vaccine delivery technologies includes rational development of vaccines, achieving immunization goals, supporting best clinical practice.
- Track 3-1DNA delivery technologies
- Track 3-2Needle-free vaccine delivery
- Track 3-3Nanopatch Technologies
- Track 3-4Adjuvant Technologies
- Track 3-5Skin patch delivery systems
- Track 3-6Adjuvants and Delivery systems for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines
- Track 3-7Formulating and delivering vaccines
- Track 3-8Next-Generation Vaccine Delivery Technology
- Track 3-9Others
Vaccine Development is an activity that focuses on a variety of technological initiatives and applied research, which enhance and promote improved systems and practices for vaccine safety. In the past year, the unprecedented Ebola disease outbreak galvanized research and industry response and as we continue to search for solutions, we must review the lessons learned in order to overcome the current challenges. Vaccine development is a long, complex process, often lasting 10-15 years and involving a combination of public and private involvement. The current system for developing, testing, and regulating vaccines developed during the 20th century as the groups involved standardized their procedures and regulations.
- Track 4-1Basic Vaccinology
- Track 4-2Ebola outbreak
- Track 4-3Vaccines discovery, development & formulation
- Track 4-4Vaccine clinical trials
- Track 4-5Vaccine Management & Quality Assurance
- Track 4-6Vaccine Immunoinformatics
- Track 4-7Therapeutic vaccination for auto immune diseases
- Track 4-8Vaccine Research in Europe
- Track 4-9Others
Most vaccines against viral infections are effective at preventing disease. However, they are not 100% effective for a number of reasons, reactions can occur after vaccinations.
It is difficult for many of us today to appreciate the dangers of childhood viral infections.
Most of the vaccines in use against viruses are very effective at preventing disease. However, for a variety of reasons, they can fail:
- The vaccine becomes inactive due to incorrect storage, if used past its expiry date, or if incorrectly administered.
- Individuals unpredictably fail to produce an adequate immune response to the vaccine.
- Vaccine immunity “fades” over time.
The different vaccine combinations at each time point do not interfere with one another and there is no increased risk of serious side-effects when they are given at the same time.
- Track 5-1Infectious mononucleosis
- Track 5-2Mumps, measles and rubella/MMR Vaccines
- Track 5-3Shingles
- Track 5-4stomach flu
- Track 5-5Viral hepatitis
- Track 5-6Viral meningitis
- Track 5-7Viral pneumonia
- Track 5-8Rabies Vaccines
- Track 5-9HSV vaccines
- Track 5-10Others
Most vaccines against bacterial infections are effective at preventing disease, reactions can occur after vaccinations. Vaccines are available against tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type B, cholera, typhoid and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
- Track 6-1Typhoid Vaccines
- Track 6-2Typhus Vaccine
- Track 6-3Live attenuated vaccines
- Track 6-4Inactivated vaccines
- Track 6-5Polysaccharide vaccines
- Track 6-6Others
Population protection by vaccination against infections has been one of the major achievements of public health and is of considerable importance in controlling respiratory disease. Our mandate is to prevent, reduce or eliminate vaccine-preventable and infectious respiratory diseases; reduce the negative impact of emerging and re-emerging respiratory infections. Viral respiratory infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in infants and young children as well as in at-risk adults and the elderly. Although many viral pathogens are capable of causing acute respiratory disease, vaccine development has to focus on a limited number of pathogens (i.e., agents that commonly cause serious lower respiratory disease). Inactivated and, more recently, live attenuated influenza virus vaccines are the mainstay of interpandemic influenza prevention, but vaccines are not available yet for other important viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, metapneumovirus, the parainfluenza viruses, and avian influenza virus with pandemic potential. Reverse genetics systems that allow rational vaccine development are now widely used, and considerable progress has been made in preclinical and clinical development of novel respiratory virus vaccines.
- Track 7-1H1N1 Influenza vaccine
- Track 7-2RSV vaccine
- Track 7-3Pneumococcal vaccine
- Track 7-4MERS vaccine
- Track 7-5Others
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is an inactivated (not live) vaccine which protects against four major types of HPV.
These include two types that cause about 70% of cervical cancer and two types that cause about 90% of genital warts. HPV vaccine can prevent most genital warts and most cases of cervical cancer. Protection from HPV vaccine is expected to be long-lasting. But vaccinated women still need cervical cancer screening because the vaccine does not protect against all HPV types that cause cervical cancer.
- HPV vaccine is routinely recommended for girls 11 and 12 years of age
- The HPV4 vaccine (the type recommended for prevention of genital warts in girls) may also be given in three doses to boys aged 9 to 26.
- Track 8-1Advances in HPV Vaccine
- Track 8-2HPV Vaccines for Men
- Track 8-3HPV Vaccine risks and controversies
- Track 8-4HPV Vaccine for Women
- Track 8-5Global HPV Vaccine Market Analysis
- Track 8-6Others
Vaccination given to children is called childhood Immunization. It is currently recommended that all children receive vaccination against the infectious diseases unless the child has special circumstances, such as a compromised immune system or neurological disorders. In our mobile society, over a million people each day people travel to and from other countries, where many vaccine-preventable diseases remain relatively common. Without vaccines, epidemics of many preventable diseases could return, resulting in increased - and unnecessary - illness, disability, and death among children.
We have record or near record low levels of vaccine-preventable childhood diseases in the United States, but that does not mean these have disappeared. Many of the viruses and bacteria are still circulating in this country or are only a plane ride away. That’s why it’s important that children, especially infants and young children receive recommended immunizations on time.
- Track 9-1Immunization for Children
- Track 9-2Infant Immunization scheduling
- Track 9-3Childhood Travel Immunization
- Track 9-4Polio Vaccine
- Track 9-5Hib Vaccine
- Track 9-6Others
An AIDS vaccine does not yet exist, but efforts to develop a vaccine against HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, have been underway for many years. An HIV vaccine could be effective in either of two ways. A “preventive” vaccine would stop HIV infection occurring altogether, whereas a “therapeutic” vaccine would not stop infection, but would prevent or delay illness in people who do become infected, and might also reduce the risk of them transmitting the virus to other people. Although a preventive vaccine would be ideal, a therapeutic vaccine would also be highly beneficial. The basic idea behind all HIV vaccines is to encourage the human immune system to fight HIV.
- Track 10-1HIV Vaccine Strategies
- Track 10-2T cell-based vaccines
- Track 10-3Adjuvants
- Track 10-4B cell-based vaccines
- Track 10-5Vaccine Concepts
- Track 10-6HIV Transmission
- Track 10-7Innate & Mucosal Immunity
- Track 10-8Viral Vaccine Vectors
- Track 10-9Therapeutic Vaccines & Viral Latency
- Track 10-10Preventive HIV Vaccines
- Track 10-11Innovations in HIV Vaccine Discovery
- Track 10-12Emerging Clinical Trials
- Track 10-13Challenges Facing AIDS Vaccine Development
- Track 10-14Others
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.
There are 5 main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E. These 5 types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread. In particular, types B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and, together, are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer.
- Track 11-1Hepatitis C Vaccine
- Track 11-2Hepatitis B Vaccine
- Track 11-3Hepatitis A Vaccine
- Track 11-4Hepatitis Vaccines Trials
- Track 11-5Others
The splenectomized patient should be vaccinated to decrease the risk of overwhelming postsplenectomy sepsis (OPSS) due to organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type B, and Neisseria meningitidis.
To reduce the incidence of fulminant infections in this risk group, guides and recommendations for systematic preventive measures have been designed, based on vaccination, antibiotic prophylaxis and health education.
- Track 12-1Pre splenectomy vaccines
- Track 12-2Post-splenectomy vaccine Prophylaxis
- Track 12-3Others
When the immune system receives a vaccine containing a harmless toxoid, it learns how to fight off the natural toxin. The immune system produces antibodies that lock onto and block the toxin. Vaccines against diphtheria and tetanus are examples of toxoid vaccines. Toxoids are used as vaccines because they induce an immune response to the original toxin or increase the response to another antigen since the toxoid markers and toxin markers are preserved. For bacteria that secrete toxins, or harmful chemicals, a toxoid vaccine might be the answer. These vaccines are used when a bacterial toxin is the main cause of illness. Scientists have found that they can inactivate toxins by treating them with formalin, a solution of formaldehyde and sterilized water. Such “detoxified” toxins, called toxoids and are safe for use in vaccines.
- Track 13-1Tetanus vaccine during pregnancy
- Track 13-2Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids usage in pediatrics
- Track 13-3Administration and routes of administration of toxoids
- Track 13-4Innovative toxoid vaccine development
- Track 13-5Others
A pentavalent vaccine is five individual vaccines conjugated in one intended to actively protect infant children from 5 potentially deadly diseases: Haemophilus Influenza type B (the bacteria that causes meningitis, pneumonia and otitis), Whooping Cough (or Pertussis), Tetanus, Hepatitis B and Diphtheria.
Pentavalent vaccine comes in single-dose glass bottles called vials, which should be stored at between +2°C and +8°C. It should never be frozen, or allowed to become warmer than +8°C, as this will destroy its effectiveness. If it is allowed to stand for a long time, fine particles settle to the bottom of the vial leaving a cloudy liquid above them. This is normal. Shake the vial to mix the vaccine with the liquid before using it.
- Track 14-1Types of Pentavalent Vaccine
- Track 14-2Storage of Pentavalent Vaccine
- Track 14-3Side effects of Pentavalent Vaccine
- Track 14-4Monitoring Pentavalent Vaccine use
- Track 14-5Others
Passive immunity refers to the process of providing IgG antibodies to protect against infection; it gives immediate, but short-lived protection—several weeks to 3 or 4 months at most. Passive immunity is usually classified as natural or acquired. The transfer of maternal tetanus antibody (mainly IgG) across the placenta provides natural passive immunity for the newborn baby for several weeks/months until such antibody is degraded and lost. In contrast, acquired passive immunity refers to the process of obtaining serum from immune individuals, pooling this, concentrating the immunoglobulin fraction and then injecting it to protect a susceptible person.
- Track 15-1Natural Passive Immunity
- Track 15-2Acquired Passive Immunity
- Track 15-3Passive rabies immunization
- Track 15-4Passive immunization Varicella-Zoster
- Track 15-5Passive immunization Hepatitis B
- Track 15-6Human Tetanus Immunoglobulin
- Track 15-7Others
Vaccines that target blood-feeding disease vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, have the potential to protect against the many diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens. Vector-borne diseases are among the most complex of all infectious diseases to prevent and control. Vector- borne diseases, most of which are transmitted in and around the home, are best controlled by a combination of vector control (use of public health insecticides on bednets, or by spraying), medicines and vaccines.
Historically, successful vector-borne disease prevention resulted from management or elimination of vector populations. Malaria was driven out of the USA and most of Europe in this way. Where vector control has been consistently applied in the past, the results have been dramatic, especially with early efforts to control malaria by spraying the inside surfaces of houses with insecticides. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide treated bednets have been very effective over the last 10 years and are widely regarded as one of the main contributors to the more than 1 million lives saved.
- Track 16-1Lyme disease
- Track 16-2Yellow fever
- Track 16-3Malaria
- Track 16-4Dengue
- Track 16-5Chikungunya
- Track 16-6Japanese encephalitis
- Track 16-7Leishmaniasis
- Track 16-8Zika Virus
- Track 16-9Others
DNA vaccination is a technique for protecting an animal against disease by injecting it with genetically engineered DNA so cells directly produce an antigen, resulting in a protective immunological response.
Vaccination consists of stimulating the immune system with an infectious agent, or components of an infectious agent, modified in such a manner that no harm or disease is caused, but ensuring that when the host is confronted with that infectious agent, the immune system can adequately neutralize it before it causes any ill effect. For over a hundred years vaccination has been effected by one of two approaches: either introducing specific antigens against which the immune system reacts directly; or introducing live attenuated infectious agents that replicate within the host without causing disease synthesize the antigens that subsequently prime the immune system.
- Track 17-1Recombinant Vaccines
- Track 17-2Next generation DNA Vaccines
- Track 17-3Delivery methods
- Track 17-4Others
Most infectious agents enter the body at mucosal surfaces and therefore mucosal immune responses function as a first line of defence. Protective mucosal immune responses are most effectively induced by mucosal immunization through oral, nasal, rectal or vaginal routes, but the vast majority of vaccines in use today are administered by injection. Immunisation involves the delivery of antigens to the mucosal immune system (dispersed or organised into units such as Peyer’s patches in the intestine or the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue in the oropharangeal cavity). The antigen delivery systems may comprise a simple buffer solution with/without adjuvants or an advanced particulate formulation, such as liposomes or nanoparticles. The most commonly evaluated route for mucosal antigen delivery is oral, but other routes have also been explored.
- Track 18-1Edible Vaccines
- Track 18-2Common vaccinations given by mucosal route
- Track 18-3Mucosal Vaccines Delivery
- Track 18-4Challenges in mucosal vaccine design
- Track 18-5Mucosal vaccine development
- Track 18-6Others
Vaccines are the best defense we have against serious, preventable, and sometimes deadly contagious diseases. Vaccines are some of the safest medical products available, but like any other medical product, there may be health risk. Accurate information about the value of vaccines as well as their possible side-effects helps people to make informed decisions about vaccination.
Importance of Vaccine Safety
- Decreases in disease risks and increased attention on vaccine risks.
- Public confidence in vaccine safety is critical
- Higher standard of safety is expected of vaccines
- Vaccines generally healthy (vs. ill for drugs)
- lower risk tolerance = need to search for rare reactions
- Vaccination universally recommended and mandated
- Track 19-1Vaccine Administration, Storage & Handling
- Track 19-2Factors Influencing Vaccine efficacy
- Track 19-3Vaccine safety communication
- Track 19-4Vaccine Safety Monitoring and Vaccine Pharmacovigilance
- Track 19-5Patient and Public acceptance and perceptions
- Track 19-6Post marketing surveillance of Vaccines
- Track 19-7Others
Anyone planning to travel abroad may need immunizations before departure. Although few immunizations are compulsory for international travel, some are recommended for the traveller’s protection. Some vaccines must be given in 2–3 doses several weeks apart. Therefore, a doctor should be consulted at least 2–3 months before departure. Children under 1 year, and people with a compromised immune system or serious underlying disorder may not be able to have some vaccinations, such as those for yellow fever and tuberculosis (BCG). Recommended vaccines are travel vaccinations that can protect you in areas where there is an intermediate or high risk for contracting certain illnesses. They also help prevent the spread of diseases from one country to another.
- Track 20-1MMR Vaccine and Travel
- Track 20-2Routine Immunizations for travel
- Track 20-3Traveler’s diarrhea
- Track 20-4Others
Veterinary vaccines are to improve the health and welfare of companion animals, increase production of livestock in a cost-effective manner, and prevent animal-to-human transmission from both domestic animals and wildlife. Several vaccine types can de distinguished among the second-generation veterinary vaccines, depending whether they are live or inactivated, according to the strain of rabies virus used and the characteristics of the cell substrate chosen for viral replication. More recently a third generation of live veterinary rabies vaccine has been developed using recombinant technology. Depending upon the expression system these vaccines are used either parenterally or orally. Oral rabies vaccines are widely used in foxes in Europe and in racoons in the USA.
- Track 21-1Vaccinology for veterinary and agricultural indications
- Track 21-2Current status of veterinary vaccines
- Track 21-3Vaccines for Livestock Diseases
- Track 21-4Safety or efficacy of a veterinary medicine
- Track 21-5Pet vaccines and vaccination
- Track 21-6Animal health outcomes
- Track 21-7Recent Advances in Animal Vaccination
- Track 21-8Livestock/Aquaculture/Veterinary Vaccine Innovations
- Track 21-9Others
A Vaccine adjuvant is an ingredient of a vaccine that helps create a stronger immune response in the patient’s body. In other words, adjuvants help vaccines work better. Some vaccines made from weakened or dead germs contain naturally occurring adjuvants and help the body produce a strong protective immune response. However, most vaccines developed today include just small components of germs, such as their proteins, rather than the entire virus or bacteria. These vaccines often must be made with adjuvants to ensure the body produces an immune response strong enough to protect the patient from the germ he or she is being vaccinated against. Aluminum gels or aluminum salts are vaccine ingredients that have been used in vaccines since the 1930s. Small amounts of aluminum are added to help the body build stronger immunity against the germ in the vaccine. Aluminum is one of the most common metals found in nature and is present in air, food, and water. The amount of aluminum present in vaccines is low and is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
- Track 22-1Next-Generation Adjuvants
- Track 22-2Advances in DNA Vaccines, TLRS and Combination Adjuvants
- Track 22-3Understanding Mode of Action and De-Risking Design
- Track 22-4Addressing Unmet Vaccine Needs
- Track 22-5Others
BCG, or bacille Calmette-Guerin (Tuberculosis Vaccines), is a vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) disease. Many foreign-born persons have been BCG-vaccinated. BCG is used in many countries with a high prevalence of TB to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. However, Tuberculosis Vaccine is not generally recommended for use in the United States because of the low risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the variable effectiveness of the vaccine against adult pulmonary TB, and the vaccine’s potential interference with tuberculin skin test reactivity. The Tuberculosis Vaccine should be considered only for very select persons who meet specific criteria and in consultation with a TB expert.
- Track 23-1TB vaccine development
- Track 23-2Scientific challenges facing the TB vaccine field
- Track 23-3 Next Generation TB Vaccines and Vaccine Concepts
- Track 23-4Others
Vaccines can help keep you and your growing family healthy. If you are pregnant or planning a pregnancy, the specific vaccinations you need are determined by factors such as your age, lifestyle, medical conditions you may have, such as asthma or diabetes, type and locations of travel, and previous vaccinations. Benefits of vaccinating pregnant women usually outweigh potential risks when the likelihood of disease exposure is high, when infection would pose a risk to the mother or fetus, and when the vaccine is unlikely to cause harm. All women who will be pregnant (any trimester) during the flu season should be offered this vaccine. Talk to your doctor to see if this applies to you. Tetanus/Diphtheria/Pertussis (Tdap): Tdap is recommended during pregnancy, preferably between 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, to protect baby from whooping cough.
- Track 24-1Immunization before pregnancy
- Track 24-2Whooping cough Vaccine in pregnant women
- Track 24-3Immunization during pregnancy
- Track 24-4Immunization after pregnancy
- Track 24-5Consequences of halting vaccination in pregnancy
- Track 24-6Chiropractic vaccination care in women and pregnancy
- Track 24-7Others
Vaccines are an important part of routine preventive care for older adults, but most adults don’t get their vaccines as recommended. Omitting vaccination leaves adults needlessly vulnerable to severe illnesses, long-term suffering and death from preventable infections. Vaccines are recommended for adults of all ages, they are particularly important for older persons who are at great risk of serious debilitating consequences and death from infectious diseases. Vaccination is particularly important for individuals living in nursing homes or assisted living facilities, as disease can spread easily among people in close proximity.
- Track 25-1Vaccine dosing and administration in older adults
- Track 25-2Immunization and its side effects in geriatrics
- Track 25-3Herpes zoster vaccine
- Track 25-4Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine
- Track 25-5Contraindications and precautions during vaccination in geriatrics
- Track 25-6Risk factors in geriatric immunization
- Track 25-7Others
Like all livestock, farmed fish can be protected from disease risks by vaccination. Vaccines have been a major factor in decreasing the use of antibiotics in aquaculture while keeping fish healthy. However, a vaccine is only effective if it is delivered properly into the fish, in the correct place and at the correct dose. Today, therefore, most salmon and many other farmed fish are vaccinated by specialist vaccination companies.
At Aqualife, we are dedicated to ensuring that vaccination is carried out to the highest possible standards. We lead the fish vaccination field and have set new benchmarks for the industry, ensuring every fish is injected accurately, safely and with minimal stress.
- Track 26-1Oral vaccination
- Track 26-2Immersion vaccination
- Track 26-3Injection vaccination
- Track 26-4Vaccination Techniques
- Track 26-5Others
A preventative vaccine is administered to a person who is free of the targeted infection. By introducing a part of the virus or an inactive virus (which acts like a decoy) into the body, the immune system reacts by producing antibodies. Preventive vaccines are widely used to prevent diseases like polio, chicken pox, measles, mumps, rubella, influenza (flu), and hepatitis A and B.
In addition to preventive vaccines, there are also “therapeutic vaccines”. These are vaccines that are designed to treat people who already have a disease. Some scientists prefer to refer to therapeutic vaccines as “therapeutic immunogens.
Plant-based vaccines are recombinant protein subunit vaccines. Ideally, the choice of plant species used to produce the selected antigen should allow for oral delivery in the form of an edible vaccine. These vaccines are well suited to combat diseases where there is a clear antigen candidate, and where the costs of production or delivery for any current vaccine are prohibitive. Several academic and industrial research groups are currently investigating the use of plant-based vaccines in both humans and animals. To date, the most advanced human vaccine projects have successfully completed phase I clinical trials, and animal vaccine projects have given promising data in early phase trials targeting specific animal species.